Tony Garnier

Biography

Tony Garnier was born August 13, 1869, in the 1st district of Lyon (quarter of Croix-Rousse) of :
-Pierre Garnier, his father, a draftsman in manufacturing,
-Anne Evrard, his mother, weaver.

From 1883 to 1886, at age 14, he entered the Ecole Technique de la Martinière. The knowledge gained will serve him for the study of metallic arches, articulated on three ball joints for the cattle market of slaughterhouses at Gerland.
From 1886 to 1889 Ecole des Beaux-Arts de Lyon. He obtained the first prize for architecture, the honor prize and the Bellemain’s prize created by Philibert Bellemain, Member of the Academic Society of Architecture, designed to allow the student in architecture to continue his studies either in Lyon or in Paris. Without this prize Tony Garnier could not have succeeded in the competitive examination of Rome.
1889 : Admission contest for the School of Paris.
1899 : 1st Grand Prix de Rome. Departure for the Villa Medicis in Rome for a period of 4 years and "without which he could not say anything."
Travels in Sicily, Greece, Istanbul and Egypt.
Obligation to devote these four years to ancient monuments or the Renaissance, but Tony Garnier prefers to focus on more current problems posed by industrial development and social evolution : the functional urbanism.
Influence on the architectural design of Tony Garnier :
- Born in the modest circle of silk weavers called "Canuts" with harsh conditions, low wages.
- Socialist ideas conveyed by Zola, who fascinated Tony Garnier so much.
- Evolution of the techniques for concrete and for metal structures.

1904 : Back to Lyon.
Mayor Lyon at the time, Victor Augagneur confides his draft municipal dairy-industry Parc de la Tête d'Or to Tony Garnier (for supplying  the cribs with milk in Lyon).
1905 : Succession of the Mayor of Lyon, Edouard Herriot.
During the transmission of powers, Victor Augagneur has praised Tony Garnier. Edouard Herriot entrusts the Great Works of the City of Lyon to Tony Garnier.

From 1905 to 1938 Tony Garnier conducts the majority of his works in Lyon (see section "Architectural projects").
1938 : Tony Garnier leaves Lyon with regret to go to La Bédoule, near Marseille. He feels cut off from what was the reason for his existence. Most of his works have been built in Lyon.
19 janvier 1948 : Death of Tony Garnier.
Some students will come and take, at the request of Ms. Garnier,all of the graphic and pictorial work. Much was given to the Museum of Lyon.
November 1949: Transfer of the body of Tony Garnier to the cemetery of the Croix-Rousse district.

 

The Industrial City

The draft Industrial City of Tony Garnier characterizes the new ideas in urban planning that are clarity and simplicity.
The draft Industrial City is based on the principle of zoning: boundary between industrial area and residential area (away from the wind, calmer, near the river).
The principles are:

Residential area :
- Low-rise buildings (3-5 levels), - parks - South orientation mandatory for main living areas, - prohibition of any courtyard enclosed or not - lighting and ventilation required - distribution of primary schools to reduce travel time.
Administrative area :
The administrative area is located in the center of the residential community. It includes various organizations that support the social and political needs of the population as well as cultural buildings.
University Area :
It includes all secondary schools.

Hospital area :
This area is isolated from the city and placed in a higher position and with favorable weather conditions.
Presence of a "shopping center" consisting of commercial activities.
Presence of a graveyard, a waste treatment plant.
The whole is surrounded by greenery and immersed in an atmosphere of gardens.
The city of Tony Garnier is on a human scale: everything is set up for people and their well-being.
This is what makes Tony Garnier the precursor of twentieth century urbanism

 

 

Architectural achievements

Workplaces

- VACHERIE DU PARC
1904-1905
Parc Tête d’Or, Lyon 6ème

- LA HALLE TONY GARNIER
1909-1928
20 place des Docteurs Mérieux,
Lyon 7ème

- HOPITAL DE GRANGE BLANCHE
1910-1933
Place d’Arsonval,
Lyon 3ème

- USINE MERCIER
& CHALEYSSIN
1913-1914
Lyon 6ème

- ECOLE DE TISSAGE
1927-1933
Cours Général Giraud
Lyon 4ème

Stadiums

- STADE ATHLETIQUE
DE GERLAND
1914-1926
Gerland, Lyon 7ème

- STADE NAUTIQUE
1928-1929
Gerland,
Lyon 7ème

Housing

- LOGEMENTS
DE LA VACHERIE
1912
Parc Tête d’Or, Lyon 6ème

- VILLA DE L’ARCHITECTE
1911
Saint-Rambert, Lyon 9ème

- VILLA DE Mme GARNIER
1913
Saint-Rambert, Lyon 9ème

- QUARTIER DES ETATS-UNIS
1919-1934
Boulevard des Etats-Unis,
Lyon 8ème

- VILLA
1921
Saint-Rambert, Lyon 9ème

- VILLA GROS
1922
Saint-Didier au Mont d’Or

Monuments

- MONUMENT
À EDOUARD AYNARD
1919
Parvis du Palais du Commerce, Lyon 2ème

- MONUMENT AUX MORTS
1920-1930
Ile aux Cygnes,
Parc Tête d’Or, Lyon 6ème

- MONUMENT AUX MORTS
1924
Montplaisir, Lyon 8ème

- MONUMENT
À AUGUSTE CHAUVEAU
1926
Ecole vétérinaire, Lyon 9ème

Graves

- TOMBE GAILLETON
1905
Cimetière de Loyasse,Lyon 5ème

- TOMBE GARNIER
1937
Cimetière Croix-Rousse,
Lyon 4ème

- TOMBE JANCERT
1940
Cimetière de Caluire et Cuire

 

The man, his character

Character of Tony Garnier and principles of its architecture :
- modest, simple, dedicated,
- Logical in the organization of plans and volumes,
- Sense of proportions, moderation and balance in architectural plans,
- Rejection of any gigantism : promotes individual housing to preserve a contact with nature,
- For apartment buildings : nor very long neither very high buildings, cut facades of setbacks with wide passages from one street to another,
- Flat roofs that can serve as playgrounds,
- Preference for authentic materials,
- Structures unadorned, without molding,
- Rejection of any unnecessary decoration : functional buildings,
- Integration in the site: harmony with the lines of nature with large horizontal and vertical lines,
- Respect for the human scale,
- Adaptation of the building to its specific purpose,
- Development of techniques of reinforced concrete (economy of means and effectiveness reasons) and metal structures.